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Roma Street Railway Station


Place Details
Place ID 601208
Registration Type State Heritage
Place Name Roma Street Railway Station
Alternative Name Brisbane Passenger Station
Brisbane Terminal Station
Brisbane Terminus
Place Classification Built
Place Category Transport - Rail
Place Type Railway station
Themes 5 Moving goods, people and information / 5.3 Using rail
3 Developing secondary and tertiary industries / 3.12 Catering for tourists
6 Building settlements, towns, cities and dwellings / 6.3 Developing urban services and amenities
Register Entry Date 24/03/2000

Location
Address 15 Countess Street
Town / Suburb BRISBANE CITY
Post Code 4000
LGA BRISBANE CITY COUNCIL

Cultural Heritage Significance
Principal Period
of Significance
1870s-1910s (historical) 1870s-1910s (fabric) 1870s-ongoing (social)
Criterion A The Roma Street Railway Station was erected in 1873-5 as the first Brisbane Terminal Station and demonstrates the development of the railway in Queensland, as the earliest Brisbane city station and as the head office of railway administration in the 1870s and 1880s who oversaw the construction of rail lines in Queensland. The building demonstrates the development of Queensland in the 1870s with the construction of major public buildings and the provision of essential public services.
Criterion D The Roma Street Railway Station demonstrates the principal characteristics of major railway stations in Queensland. The building in its form and layout provides evidence of its former use, with evidence of waiting halls, ticket offices, public facilities and offices. The building has architectural value as a substantial example of the public work of prominent Queensland architect, FDG Stanley.
Criterion E The building has architectural value as a substantial example of the public work of prominent Queensland architect, FDG Stanley.
Criterion G The 1873-5 Roma Street Railway Station is of social value as an important remnant of an inner city railway station in public use for over 120 years. Because the context of the building has been gradually changed and the building is no longer appreciated as a discrete structure, the surviving railway station contributes to an understanding of the development of the site.

History
History The Roma Street Railway Station was constructed in 1873-5 as the first Brisbane Terminal Station prior to the construction of the Brisbane Central Railway Station and for use on the Brisbane end of the South-Western Railway Line from Toowoomba. The building was designed by FDG Stanley, the Superintendent of Public Buildings in 1873 and built over the next two years by Brisbane builder, John Petrie. The Queensland Parliament passed the Railway Act in 1863, enabling the first railways to be constructed. A railway survey had been undertaken by the New South Wales Government in 1856 prior to separation, but it was the Moreton Bay Tramway Company who, on constructing a wooden-railed horse hauled tramway between Ipswich and Toowoomba in 1861, pioneered rail transportation to Queensland. Queensland's sparse population discouraged rail transportation as non--viable. The first line between Ipswich and a small town near Ipswich, Bigge's Camp (or Grandchester as it is now known) was opened in 1865. This was the first stage of a four stage project which was to eventually to link Ipswich to Warwick in 1871, passing through Toowoomba in 1867 and Dalby in 1868. The Ipswich community was opposed to the extension of the railway toward Brisbane, which threatened to reduce valuable shipping trade to Ipswich. Despite reluctance a preliminary survey of the line between Ipswich and Brisbane was completed in November of 1865. As part of the planning for the new line a major station was planned at the Brisbane Terminal at Roma Street. This building was originally to be an imported iron station building from Britain designed by Sir C. Fox and Son. The downturn in the state's economy in the late 1860s, resulted in a smaller station which was built to a design of FDG Stanley in 1873-5. The order for the iron building was cancelled, not, however, before certain elements were in transit from London; consequently a large iron carriage shed arrived and was dismantled for use on a number of projects. By 1872 a report of the Royal Commission on Railway Construction was presented to Parliament which made a case for the extension of the South-West Railway into Brisbane. The case for the railway line was adopted and plans were immediately made for a survey which estimated the cost of the rail link to be £192,000, or £8000 per mile of line. Previously a decision was made to adopt a narrow gauge of 3'6", rather than the wider gauge adopted in other states and this reflects the general attitude toward the construction of railway lines and stations in Queensland in these first years, that of providing adequate facilities economically. On January 30, 1873, the first sod was turned on the extension of the line to Brisbane by the Marquis of Normanby. In October of 1973, a tender notice appeared in the Government Gazette for the construction of the railway station in Brisbane. FDG Stanley who was the Superintendent of Buildings within the Public Works Department at the time, was the designer of the building. The tender of John Petrie was accepted in on December 1, 1873. The building was then built over the next two years. In the Brisbane Courier, 'Summary for Europe', which appeared on 30 October 1873, detailed plans of the new Terminus Passenger Station were provided: The Station will be erected in the Green Hills, just outside the western fence of the Grammar School and facing Roma Street from which it will be distant 100 yards. The general style of the building will be that known as the Italian Gothic order of architecture. The material used...will be pressed brick with cut stone facings, this being chosen on account of its durability and as also affording the greatest consonant with economy. The station will consist of a main building, two storeys high, flanked at each end by a single storey wing...On the ground floor...will be the booking offices, station master's offices, waiting rooms and other offices connected with ordinary railway travel. The upper floor will be devoted to the offices of the traffic and engineering staff...The plans have been designed by Mr FDG Stanley, Superintendent of Public Buildings. The line was opened as far as Oxley Point by February of 1875, but the bridge across the Brisbane River to Indooroopilly was not constructed until later, and the trains were shunted across the river on punts. Despite its incomplete state, the line from Ipswich to Brisbane was officially opened on 14 June, 1875. At the opening, the platform at Brisbane Passenger Station was half-paved and the rooms and corridors incomplete, the roofing over the platform in progress merely and the place lit temporarily . The station was designed to house staff and facilities associated with rail traffic, including the station master, booking office and waiting rooms. A large goods shed was erected at Roma Street in 1875-6 and sidings were introduced to incorporate the new building. The cost of this work was £7446. The next major addition to the station was a rail bridge over Countess Street also planned in 1876 when Parliament voted £19,600 for construction of this and other improvements at the station. The bridge measured 66 feet and was an iron-plate girder span on brick abutments and was constructed to avoid disturbing road traffic. Other improvements at this time include construction of a number of cattle yards. Roma Street Railway Station and the surrounding railyards has been dramatically altered over the years of its use. In 1911 the railyard was established at Roma Street and the entire site was replanned. The next major change occurred in the early 1940s when the Country Station was constructed between the original Terminal Station and Roma Street. The most recent, and most significant change to the Railway Station occurred in the 1980s when the transit centre, incorporating the Travelodge Hotel was constructed (now Centra). A number of sources suggest that the original carriage shed was erected as a temporary measure. By 1882 a new carriage shed was erected and the terminal station platforms extended. Also during this year a rail line was opened to Sandgate further increasing traffic through Roma Street Station. In 1889, the Brisbane Central Railway Station was opened and the original Brisbane Terminal Station became known as the Roma Street Railway Station. Construction of buildings, including a gas works, stores buildings and engine sheds continued as rail traffic increased. In 1911 a major re-organisation of the Roma Street Railway Station precinct was planned, involving the removal of locomotive and carriage facilities to the Mayne Rail Yards where a new marshalling yard was built. Roma Street continued to develop during the 1910s and 1920s as the major goods loading point. In 1914 an additional storey was added to the porte cochere of the station building increasing office accommodation on the first floor. On 30 November 1940 the Country Station was opened at Roma Street. This low lying face brick building sat directly between the 1873-5 building and Roma Street. For the first time the early railway station was flanked by platforms and was no longer able to be accessed via Roma Street directly. The new passenger station was designed to relieve congestion at Brisbane Central Station and made Roma Street Station the chief station for long distance travel. Trains travelling, southward however, still left from South Brisbane prior to the construction of the Merivale Bridge in 1978. The 1940 station was planned amid a large garden setting some of which survives to this day and continued a tradition of substantial and attractive gardens surrounding railway stations in Queensland. When constructed the roof of the 1873-5 station was clad with slate tiles, during the general refurbishment of the station area following the construction of the 1940 passenger station the roof of the early station was re-clad with corrugated fibrous sheeting. Platforms and awnings were constantly re-arranged at the Roma Street Station. In 1959 the early iron carriage shed was removed and was replaced with more modest awnings. During the 1980s the isolation of the original station building was further increased with the construction of the monolithic Travelodge centre which incorporated new railway facilities along with a hotel, offices and function centre. This development saw the demolition of the 1940 railway station. During the mid 1990s a further re-arrangement and extension of the platforms to the north and south of the early station building occurred.

Description
Description The Roma Street Railway Station is a substantial building constructed of rendered masonry situated between the new Roma Street Station within the Travelodge (Centra) tower on Roma Street and the platform structures to the rear of this. The building retains some c1940s platform awnings and is adjacent to early remnant garden areas. The 1873-5 Station is a two storeyed building lined to the north and south by platforms. When built the platforms were at the rear, northern edge of the building only. Platforms were introduced to the southern side from the 1940 renovation. At the eastern end of the station building is a large iron roofed and steel framed semi-open space which replaced an earlier similar structure. Several small buildings survive to the west of the station building surrounded by remnant gardens. The building when constructed was a loadbearing face brick structure with a central two storeyed section flanked by one storeyed wings. The corrugated fibrous cement roof of the station is hipped over the central part and separately hipped over the flanking bays which also feature dormer windows with brick surrounds to the south. The present roof replaced an earlier slate roof. The building has been painted externally. The building was designed with classical elements including symmetrical massing, southern arcade and porte cochere; round and square arched head windows, castellated parapet detailing, classically inspired mouldings, string course mouldings lining the entire building and pilasters separating openings. A description of the newly completed building described the style as 'Italian Gothic', probably reflecting the face brick and stone dressed mouldings of the exterior and the classical elements over the building. The building is a substantial example of a late Victorian Italianate influence. The central part of the building is divided into three bays, a central bay projects from the southern face of the building and is lined on the ground floor of this face with a porte cochere. The porte cochere comprises rusticated corner columns and round intermediary columns supporting an arcade with castellated parapet. Since original construction a second storey has been added to the porte cochere. The southern face of the upper floor of this central bay is lined with five round arched window openings, with brick surrounds and moulded hoods. The central bay is flanked by side bays each with three round arched windows on the upper floor and a partially enclosed arcade on the ground floor. The windows along the southern side of the building are generally timber framed double hung sash windows and along the northern side are aluminium framed sliding windows. The northern face of the building was originally conceived as an internal wall, inside the original carriage shed. The northern face features a number of irregularly spaced windows and doors along the ground floor, and regularly space squared arched windows on the floor above. Internally, the building is arranged on the ground floor with a number of rooms openings from the original arcade along the southern side of the building and stair halls at the eastern and western ends of the building providing access to the upper floor. The upper floor is arranged around a substantial central hall articulated by moulded round archways, from which a number of large rooms open. The ground floor has a concrete floor covering the central bay of the building and timber boarded floors to the eastern and western ends. The arcade on this floor provides access to a large central hall, divided into two by a rendered brick partition and by a curved walled room on the northern side and originally used as a ticket office. The hall was used for waiting rooms and the separation reflects the division between first and second class passengers. Other rooms on the ground are smaller offices, some with timber boarded ceilings. Within these offices are many items of significant furniture which contribute to an understanding of the railway history of the building; including joinery pieces, special cupboards and an early station names board. Large public toilet facilities are found at each end of the ground floor of the building. The upper floor of the building was designed for use as staff offices and facilities. The two stairways providing access to the upper floor are found at the western and eastern ends of the floor. The eastern stair is a narrow dog-leg timber stairs on a steel frame which dates from about the mid-twentieth century. The western stair is an earlier timber dog leg stair. The central first floor hallway provides access to a number of large, well lit office spaces. Natural lighting from the windows lining the building is supplemented on both the northern and southern sides with a series of skylights, which though probably not original are certainly an early development of the building and reflect the use of the rooms as offices. The partitioning on the upper floor is constructed with lath and plaster walls and the ceilings are also lath and plaster. The upper floor has more decorative finishes than the lower floor with moulded archways along the hall, and cornices and skirting boards of various sizes in the halls and rooms. Early paint schemes are evident in many places of the upper floor.

Element
Element Name Roma Street Railway Station
Designer Name Stanley, Francis Drummond Greville
Style Classicism
Design Period 1870s - 1890s Late 19th century
Builder Name Petrie, John
Construction Period 1873 - 1940s circa
Construction Method Load-bearing brick
Fabric (Exterior Structure) Brick - rendered
Fabric (Roof) Fibrous Cement - corrugated sheeting
Roof Form Hipped
Place Components Foyer - entrance
Views to
Railway station
Railway siding
Ticket box/office
Platform canopies/awnings (railway)
Office/s
Furniture/Fittings
Platform

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Last updated: 15 March 2013

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